「預言」還是「講道」?──用《希臘文大詞典》解釋哥林多前書十四章1節

這篇是投稿給漢語聖經協會的文章。以下是經過他們潤稿後的內文。

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相信沒有人會反對,教會和信徒最要緊的是要明白和實踐神的吩咐。因此,查考和宣講聖經是教會必須的事情。保羅在哥林多前書十四章1節呼籲信徒“其中更要羨慕的,是作先知講道”(和合本)。不過,有人認為“先知講道”就是“說預言”,領受神的啓示,講出未來的事情,但卻又有人反對。“先知講道”這個詞在原文究竟是甚麼呢?一個沒學過原文的人,如何能判斷解經的對錯呢?

感謝神!在今日,已經有許多聖經原文的工具書,可以給信徒參考。漢語聖經協會出版的《新約及早期基督教文獻希臘文大詞典》中文版(下稱《大詞典》),就是一本非常具有權威性的參考書。中文版還添加了一些英文版沒有的功能,其中一個就是附上原文編號,方便讀者查詢。對不諳希臘文的中文讀者,是一大幫助。

當讀經者想要查詢“先知講道”這個詞語,一個便捷的方法就是到互聯網尋找這段經文。在其中一個網站上會看見這個詞的“原文編號”4395;再進一步點擊的時候,顯示這個詞作出定義:1)(宣告領受的默示)說預言;2)訴說,顯明;3)預告未來的事。[1] 在一般的情況下,這些定義已足夠;但對於想要更加深入研究的人而言,怎麼知道哥林多前書十四章1節講的“先知講道”,是這三個定義的哪一個呢?第一個定義跟第三個定義,又有甚麼區別呢?

《大詞典》在這方面,就是我們的好夥伴。有了原文編號,在《大詞典》,很容易就可以找到對應的詞,因為條目幾乎都是按照編號的順序排列。在1353頁找到了該條目προφητεύω後,可以看到它的基本意思是:“作神旨意或目的的詮釋者”,另外也說這個行為“不一定詮釋未來的事”。細分的話,有三個定義:1)宣講受默示的啟示,宣講啟示;2)講述隱藏的事,說出、揭示;3)預測未來的事,預測、預言。《大詞典》的好處在於每種細分的定義,都有提出相關的經文和其他文獻作支持。我們可以發現,哥林多前書十四章,被列入第一個定義。換句話說,《大詞典》的編者並不認為林前十四1提到的“先知講道”是指“預測未來的事”,而是“宣講啓示”。馬太福音七章22節也在第一個定義下被列出來,和合本翻譯為“傳道”。這樣,和合本在林前十四1將這詞翻譯為“先知講道”是正確的翻譯。《聖經.新漢語譯本》翻譯得更好:“宣講神的信息”。(讀者可以進入漢語聖經協會的網上書店http://www.chinesebible.org.hk/hk/ bookstore.php,在“聖經研究系列”點擊《新約及早期基督教文獻希臘文大詞典》,在試讀中輸入“宣講啓示”,參看有關資料。)

無論如何,林前十四1的προφητεύω最好不要詮釋為“說預言”,因為這節經文並不是在講“預言”,而是“講道”或“傳道”。新約聖經固然也有其他地方提到προφητεύω時,意義的確是“說預言”,例如《大詞典》在該條目的第三個定義之下所列出的太十五7、可七6、彼前一10等等,但我們不該直接把“說預言”這其中一個定義,套用在所有出現προφητεύω的地方,然後忽略了這個詞其他的意思。

當然,我們也不要犯“不當的語意分離與限制”(unwarranted semantic disjunctions and restrictions)這個錯謬。[2] 這個錯謬假定一個詞的不同定義,彼此之間有明顯的區隔,所以不能同時存在。但有時候,不同的定義之間有互補的功能。在林前十四1,我們可以說,“宣講神的信息”是主要的含意,但同時也不排除“說預言”作為其中一種宣講的方式。不過,無論如何,總不該為了強調“說預言”,就把主要“宣講神的信息”的含意淡化掉。傳道者最重要的工作,是把神的信息傳講清楚,所以要好好研讀聖經,而不是只追求說預言,卻因為對聖經的真理不熟,所以無法查驗所“領受”到的預言,是出於神,或是憑空想像來的。

幾十年前,資訊還沒有那麼發達,平信徒比較沒辦法自主判斷講台傳講的信息或教會的走向是否合乎聖經,但現在有這麼多的工具書可以使用,我們就該好好利用。當然,工具書不只是拿來批判用的。在準備查經或講道的過程中,也應該使用,以掌握原文的含意,作出正確的教導。研經不是傳道人的專利,而是所有信徒都該做的。這就是為甚麼保羅要說“你們大家都可以一個一個地宣講神的信息,好讓大家都可以學習,都可以得到勸勉。”(林前十四31,《聖經.新漢語譯本》)

[1] 信望愛網站(https://bible.fhl.net)

[2]卡森,《再思解經錯謬》,台北:校園書房,1998,63頁。

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5 Responses to 「預言」還是「講道」?──用《希臘文大詞典》解釋哥林多前書十四章1節

  1. 簡松柏 說道:

    舊約〔先知〕最重要的職分是在〔警醒、鼓勵〕以色列民,即使所傳遞的信息形同〔說預言〕,目的還是傳遞神的〔警醒、鼓勵〕,當以色列民願意領受這些〔警醒〕並領受這些〔鼓勵〕,福樂平安的〔預言〕才有意義,是吧!

    • 001 說道:

      很同意。中文的先知/預言/說預言,以及英文的prophet/prophecy/prophesy (動詞prophesy很少在英語日常會話使用),一般用法均含未卜先知之意,未必能準確翻譯原文意思。事實上,聖經中專門預告將來的先知(如新約的亞迦布),只屬少數。

      有人譯作「申言」,也算達意,不過圈外人會很難理解。

    • 無名無姓傳道人 說道:

      支持簡君高見:

      (NIGTC)
      1 The verb διώκετε means pursue here (NRSV) as in 1 Thess 5:15, as in the case of a hunter chasing after prey. The present tense, Allo argues, “Signifies the continuing of an action already begun.” REB, NJB, make love your aim, is less forceful and dynamic, while KJV/AV, NIV, follow or follow after, conveys less urgency. Similarly, ζηλοῦτε denotes cultivating a stance of eagerness. Be eager for permits a corporate concern for the well-being of the community, i.e., that these gifts may operate in the church, which is Paul’s horizon of concern. By contrast, NIV’s eagerly desire suggests a more individualist concern which Paul does not encourage, while NRSV’s strive for positively conflicts with Paul’s insistence that these are “gifts of grace” (as in 12:31, χαρίσματα) which God chooses to give or to withhold in his sovereign freedom to “order” the church as he wills (12:18). To read strive for can be pastorally misleading and theologically doubtful. Collins reserves strive for for διώκετε in v. 1a, which he views as the last clause of the previous unit (cf. v. 13), and avidly desire for ζηλοῦτε. But striving for love suggests as oxymoron not entirely consonant with the tone of 13:4–7. Smit’s rhetorical analysis retains v. 1a as part of the argumentio of ch. 14, of which vv. 1–5 constitute the partitio: zeal for love in relation to the gifts.
      Competing translations of the particle δέ offer greater difficulty, since context has to determine whether it means and or but. Similarly, τὰ πνευματικά normally means spiritual gifts (i.e., gifts from, or characterized by, the Holy Spirit) but in this specific context it may well mean more specifically spiritual utterances or gifts of the Spirit for utterance within contexts of worship. Thus Gillespie plausibly observes, “The ‘greater gifts’ are now specified as ‘spiritual utterances’ (ta pneumatika), particularly prophesying.” This meaning seems to be required by the context, but the use of brackets may be necessary to indicate that this translation assumes a greater degree of interpretative judgment than the Greek alone in strict terms explicitly bears. However Conzelmann confirms this meaning: “The tenor is now different: no longer a critique of … ‘spiritual gifts’ in general.… Now it is only speaking with tongues and prophecy that are discussed as spiritual gifts.”14
      Some commentators regard the force of δέ as resumptive. Hays observes: and be eager for …” picks up the same verb (zēloute) used in 12:31a, now specifying more closely the proper aim of such desire.” However, Chrysostom, Theodoret, and Theophylact, followed by modern writers from Heinrici onward, reject the resumptive and in favor of the adversative but, and are followed by many modern commentators. The interpretation depends on whether we presuppose that both the readers and Paul himself were aware of the potentially competitive and individualistic nature of concerns to display gifts of utterance, especially tongues. If so, Paul is likely to have felt the need to explain: pursue love, but be eager for gifts of the Spirit for utterance, because Paul is about to show that these gifts of utterance can serve others in love, and no longer remain a means of self-affirmation and cause of disruption.
      The last clause of v. 1 begins this demonstration or argument. If the readers will pay particular attention (μᾶλλον) to the activity of prophesying (in contrast to speaking with tongues, v. 2), this will serve the good of others, since Paul will show that the aim and effect of authentic prophesying is (i) to build up the whole community (vv. 4造就, 5, 17; cf. 8:1, 10; 10:23); (ii) to exhort or to comfort (vv. 3 and 31; cf. 4:13, 16; 16:12, 15); and (iii) to console or to encourage (v. 3; cf. 1 Thess 2:11; see introduction to 14:1–40, above). We noted above Vielhauer’s contrast between building up the community into a cohesive, dynamic whole, and the self-sufficient indulgent religiosity which provides mainly individual satisfaction. In these verses Paul insists that to prophesy is to perform intelligible, articulate, communicative acts of speech which have a positive effect on others and, in turn, on the whole community.
      We shall argue (with Hill, Müller, and Gillespie, as these verses proceed) that here prophecy amounts to healthy preaching, proclamation, or teaching which is pastorally applied for the appropriation of gospel truth and gospel promise, in their own context of situation, to help others. Indeed, Sandnes argues that Paul understands his own commission to preach the apostolic gospel to the Gentiles in prophetic terms. Gal 1:15–16, e.g., which is widely agreed to reflect Jeremiah’s call “from before birth” to prophetic witness (cf. Jer 1:5), stands in continuity with 1 Cor 2:1–16, 2 Cor 4:6, Rom 1:1–5, and Rom 10:14–18 in pointing to the prophetic character of Paul’s own apostolic commission to proclaim the gospel of Christ in intelligible communicative action. Sandnes points out that in postcanonical Judaism the term prophet denoted a wide range of leadership activities: the famous hymn in honor of leaders which begins “let us now sing the praises of famous men …” (Sir 44:1) includes Moses, Nathan, Elijah, Zerubbabel, and others who by their intelligible communicative action lead the people to give praise to God for his saving acts (Sirach 44–50). Paul himself, Sandnes insists, stands in this prophetic tradition. Hence the exhortation μιμηταί μου γίνεσθε looks back to apostolic lifestyle in 4:16, and in 11:1 it provides the transition from concern for the other in the issue of food offered to idols (8:1–11:1) to parallel concern for the welfare of the other in the context of worship (11:1–14:40). Prophets, above all, build up the community (8:1, 10; 10:23; 14:4, 17).

      (Hermeneia)
      ■1* The transition is harsh, and is not uniform in itself. ζηλοῦτε κτλ., “strive for, etc.,” links up with 12:30*,11 and is not in harmony with v 1a*, which links up with 13:13*.12 In the present context a unified line of thought can be discovered only with difficulty, namely, that the order of precedence which the following verses ascribe to the gifts is valid on the basis of chap. 13. Within chap. 14, however, there is no trace of this. The tenor is now different: no longer a critique of πνευματικά, “spiritual gifts,” in general, but their classification, in the context of the actual state of affairs in Corinth. Now it is only speaking with tongues and prophecy that are discussed as spiritual gifts. The criterion is no longer ἀγάπη, “love,” but οἰκοδομή 造就, “edification, upbuilding.” From this there emerges a latent criticism, as is already indicated by the phrasing of v 1b*. The presupposition is that in Corinth prophecy does not stand at the head of the list, but ranks after speaking with tongues. Thus the gifts are evaluated in Corinth according to the intensity of the ecstatic outburst; in fact, even according to the degree of unintelligibility. The latter is considered to be an indication of the working of supernatural power. Paul’s evaluation is the reverse, not on the ground of rationality as such, but because the intelligibility of what is said is a condition of the internal and external upbuilding of the community.

      • 無名無姓傳道人 說道:

        很抱歉,上傳上文時,消失了其中的重點“加亮點”(highlighting)。我的意思是,讀經時,“認字”固然重要,前後文句也同樣重要(至少保羅常常是這樣表達的)。

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